At the end of the 18th century, the First Industrial Revolution or Industry 1.0 was traced as the introductory phase for mechanical production facilities in the form of water and steam-powered engines contributed by the effort from James Watt. The foundation was laid by the revolutionary movement for the shift from individual cottage businesses that we’re serving the needs for a few organizations which were larger as we know them from today. The beginning of the modern-day industry culture was marked by the initial stage with greater emphasis on quality and efficiencies.
The second industrial revolution or Industry 2.0 was the beginning of the 20th century with electricity being used as the primary power source resulted in the mass production o goods using assembly lines. The revolution impact of electrical energy being used in machines to make manufacturing faster and more cost-effective made the era experience the advent of principles just-in-time with lean manufacturing technology featured for further optimizing the manufacturing processes.
In the 1970s, the era of Industry 3.0 or the third industrial revolution can be seen with maximal use of electronic devices such as transistors and integrated circuit chips and software, to create the fully automated machines resulting in reducing the effort, speed increased, better accuracy and the manufacturing process with complete autonomy. The cost was reduced with the increase in competition and pressure resulting in companies shifting their manufacturing bases to low-cost countries with the subsequent formation of the supply chain management concept. This led to the birth of General Motors in the manufacturing operations using electricity and moving the assembly lines.
The fourth industrial revolution or Industry 4.0 is the rapid evolution of the Internet with connected systems and other digital technologies such as AI, Robotics, additive manufacturing, big data analytics, and cloud computing. The final stage was expected to have a lasting effect till the end of the decade with importance on resulting in the blurring of the boundaries between the physical and the virtual world with the emergence of Cyber-Physical Systems (CPS) and smart machines. The machines are not only connected with CPS but networked for plants, fleets, and even human beings to radically alter the manufacturing process.
Industry 5.0 or the fifth industrial revolution witnessed the emergence of including the personalized mass production of goods where human is liked to be re-introduced in the lifecycle production for collaborating with advanced robots and involved in various activities related to partial handmade products.