How to achieve decarbonisation to control the CO2 footprint leading to a better sustainable environment?
As the demand for the battery is increasing for electric vehicles, other storage facilities, or even for consumer electronics, demand for raw materials will also significantly rise along the line.
The lines for electric batteries have been drawn strictly to be based on environmental, social, and economic impact. How far the situation will navigate strongly?
The raw materials needed for electric batteries are especially cobalt, lithium, nickel, and manganese. In 2018, the global demand for key raw materials was measured in thousands of metric tons. The lithium demand was 150 thousand metric tons, Nickel was 82 thousand metric tons and Cobalt was 58 thousand metric tons.
The major countries producing lithium are Australia, Chile, China, Argentina, Zimbabwe, Portugal, Brazil, and Namibia. The countries producing Nickel are Indonesia, the Philippines, Russia, New Caledonia, Australia, Canada, China, and Brazil. The countries known for mining Cobalt are DR Congo, Russia, Australia, Papua New Guinea, Philippines, Cuba, Madagascar, and Canada. The major countries in Manganese production are South Africa, China, Australia, Gabon, Brazil, India, Malaysia, Ukraine, and Kazakhstan.
The major issue concerned with the use of batteries leads to the increasing rise of waste along the process. The waste handling of such used batteries may become a future concern due to its chemical composition.
The recyclable lithium-ion batteries are expected to rise at a higher frequency from 2020 to 2040. As per the survey by the World Economic Forum, the global demand for batteries by the application will be high in electromobility, energy storage, and consumer electronics.
The market demand for lithium-ion batteries estimated in 2025 is 794 GWh and in 2030 is 1,559 GWh in electric vehicles. (IHS Global insight)
As per Forschungsgesellschaft Kraftfahrwesen Aachen, the market demand for Lithium-ion batteries in EV, for passenger cars is estimated to be 67%, shared vehicles with 17%, and Commercial vehicles with 16%.
The demand for lithium-ion battery storage in 2025 is 92 GWh and in 2030 is forecasted to be 183 GWh per year.
The main companies involved in the production of the Lithium-ion batteries by Benchmark Minerals are: –
- LG Chem
- Wanxiang Group
- SK Innovation
The traction batteries are produced in an energy-intensive method leading to the emission of GHG (Greenhouse gas). Thermal and electrical energy is mainly needed for the production of the power plants and the required energy resources.
To achieve the reduction of greenhouse gas emissions in the transport sector, the CO2 footprint needs to be minimized in battery cell production. As the emissions are lower from the energy supply, the decarbonisation effect will be greater from the electric mobility.