Sustainability is defined as sustainable development with three guiding strategies:-
- Sufficiency means production reduction and consumption.
- Efficiency in using material and energy more productively.
- Consistency means nature-friendly material cycles, recycling, and waste avoidance.
The objectives of the United Nations ensuring sustainable development on economic, social, and ecological levels are limited to 8 UN SDGs.
- Good health and well-being: The substantial reduction in the number of deaths and illnesses by 2030 due to the use of hazardous chemicals and air, water, and soil pollution and contamination.
2. Clean water and sanitation:
- Water quality is improved by 2030 by pollution reduction, eliminating dumping, and minimizing the release of hazardous chemicals and materials, the proportion of untreated wastewater is reduced and substantially increasing the recycling and safe reuse globally.
- The substaintial increase in the water-use efficiency across different sectors and ensure sustainable withdrawals by 2030 to ensure freshwater supply. Addressing the water scarcity and substantially reduce the suffering of the people from water scarcity.
3. Affordable and Clean energy
- Ensuring universal access to affordability and modern energy services by 2030.
- The global rate of improvement in energy efficiency by 2030.
4. Decent work and economic growth
- The development-oriented policies are promoted to support productive activities, decent job creation, entrepreneurship, creativity, and innovation. Encouraging the formalization and growth of the micro-, small- and medium-sized enterprises. It also includes financial service access.
- Improve progressively, through 2030, global resource efficiency in consumption and production and endeavour to decouple economic growth from environmental degradation, in accordance with the 10-YEAR FRAMEWORK OF PROGRAMMES ON SUSTAINABLE CONSUMPTION AND PRODUCTION, with developed countries taking the lead.
- Take immediate and effective measures to eradicate forced labour, end modern slavery and human trafficking and secure the prohibition and elimination of the worst forms of child labour, including recruitment and use of child soldiers, and by 2025 end child labour in all its forms.
- Protect labour rights and promote safe and secure working environments for all workers, including migrant workers, in particular women migrants, and those in precarious employment.
5. Industry, Innovation, and Infrastructure
- By 2030, upgrade infrastructure and retrofit industries to make them sustainable, with increased resource-use efficiency and greater adoption of clean and environmentally sound technologies and industrial processes, with all countries taking action in accordance with their respective capabilities.
- Enhance scientific research, upgrade the technological capabilities of industrial sectors in all countries, in particular developing countries, including, by 2030, encouraging innovation and substantially increasing the number of research and development workers per 1 million people and public and private research and development spending.
- Support domestic technology development, research and innovation in developing countries, including by ensuring a conducive policy environment for, inter alia, industrial diversification and value addition to commodities.
6. Sustainable Cities and Communities
By 2030, reduce the adverse per capita environmental impact of cities, including by paying special attention to air quality and municipal and other waste management.
7. Responsible consumption and production
- By 2030, achieve the sustainable management and efficient use of natural resources.
- By 2020, achieve the environmentally sound management of chemicals and all wastes throughout their life cycle, in accordance with agreed international frameworks, and significantly reduce their release to air, water and soil in order to minimize their adverse impacts on human health and the environment.
- By 2030, substantially reduce waste generation through prevention, reduction, recycling and reuse.
- Encourage companies, especially large and transnational companies, to adopt sustainable practices and to integrate sustainability information into their reporting cycle.
8. Climate Action
Integrate climate change measures into national policies, strategies, and planning.
Source:- European Commission, 2020b