As per arguments by different scholars, environmental, social, and economic are the challenges that are prevailing to maintain the business models in the automotive industry. For clarity of analysis, the solutions for co-determination are separated. The product technology choices are primary determinants for environmental performance in use for manufacturing and disposal.
The solutions to environmental problems are assumed that if the toxic emissions are eliminated from the automotive industry, it can be eliminated resulting in hydrogen fuel cells as a panacea being resulted.
Alternative fuels. Materials and designs are also one of the non-cost-competitive in the industry norm. Chances of introducing alternative fuels are very less or the industry is very much in need of massive help from the government in terms of research funding, tax incentives for consumers to get the buying ratio higher for models like ‘green’ cars.
Radical new technology is considered to be another new technology, for example, hydrogen fuel cell which got introduced into the industry.