The only battery chemistry being developed at the moment that does not require lithium is sodium-ion, which has the potential to eliminate the use of less common but critical metals. Its fundamental flaw is that it has a lower energy density, making it more suitable for stationary storage and shorter-range EVs.
The biggest battery producer in the world, CATL, declared that it will start producing sodium-ion batteries in 2023. Even though only prototypes had been created, this chemical was previously thought to be a promising technology. Because of this, the IEA has raised its evaluation of sodium-ion battery technology from TRL ¾(early prototype) to TRL 6 (complete prototype at scale), with potential upgrades to TRL 8 or 9(first commercial operation) in 2023, assuming that the advancement that has been promised happens.
According to the Net Zero Scenario, by 2030, early-stage EV technologies, such as cutting-edge battery designs and alternative chemistries like sodium-ion batteries, will be commercially mature, which will assist to cut prices. The IEA Global EV Outlook has further details.