Hybrid vehicles are vehicles with a mix of both conventional and electric vehicles. The use and scaling of the battery and electric motor are done during the conventional engine been less efficient, eg. during stop and go traffic.
In this kind of vehicle, the battery is recharged by gasoline. However, the overall efficiency increases when using the electric motor in place of ICE, and also the wear and tear on the combustion engine and brake pads decrease.
As per the experts, there are limited advantages. However, financial advantage is very realistic by saving on diesel or petrol, 10-20%.
Plug-in hybrid vehicles contain both a conventional drivetrain and an electric drivetrain. The energy is received from both fossil fuels and electricity. The pros of such vehicles are replenishment of diesel or petrol vehicles for long range with a small battery.
The cons of plug-in hybrid vehicles are-
- CO2 reduction is lesser.
- Unhealthy exhaust.
- A very limited future.
The difference with a fully electric vehicle is the vehicle is solely on electricity and uses an electric motor completely. The only thing in an emergency needed is brakes. Otherwise, accelerate or decelerate by the throttle pedal. So either you push or just let go to bring down the speed.
However, it is possible only with a large battery for a long range. The benefits, the recharging cost is way below and it is cheaper to own.
Hydrogen fuel cell vehicles are battery-driven vehicles with a range extender. It needs a smaller battery. With sufficient hydrogen tank space, provide a long distance. The refueling is also fast.
The only problem is “the moment 90% of hydrogen is made from natural gas in a way that does not reduce emissions at all and even if we produce it in a green way, the efficiency is much lower.”
Source:- Electric Cars: Technology