How safe is Lithium ion batteries?

For an electric- car batteries, the most important criteria are safety where it led us to the threat of battery fire. As per a report published by BCG, a single battery fire has the potentiality of turning the public opinion against the electric vehicle, throwing the development of the industry into years back.

The current lithium-ion batteries proved a tremendous success in portable electronic devices and have been employed in the electrification of vehicles. It has been discussed that a leap forward to the usage of Si-based anode materials tends to have high voltage capacity for the next-generation battery. Improving the reliability and reducing the cost could extend the driving range and will require making batteries for a high energy density.

It has been throughout that LI-S battery is considered to the environment-friendly and low-cost next-generation battery. But the main concern in lithium-ion batteries are the area for avoiding thermal runaway, it is a positive feedback loop with a potential result of causing a fire due to the chemical reactions triggered in the cell by exacerbating heat release.

The reason for causing thermal runaway are: –

  • An overcharged battery.
  • Too- high discharge rates.
  • A short circuit.

NCA (Nickel cobalt Aluminium), NMC (Nickel Manganese Cobalt Oxide), and LMO (Lithium Manganese Oxide) which are normally used in thermal runway can be used in conjunction in a safety measure in order to monitor their behavior.

Such measures include a robust battery box, a very efficient cooling system, precise state-of-charge monitoring, and balancing the cell-discharging.

Even though battery recharging is a threat but ICE and gasoline engines have also been improved with significant safety challenges through improvements in design and engineering.

Sources:-

1.https://www.researchgate.net/publication/290433585_Application_of_Lithium-Ion_Batteries_in_Vehicle_Electrification
2. https://www.bcg.com/documents/file36615.pdf

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