In-vehicle technology, automatic braking, automatic cruise control, intelligent speed assistance, line keeping assist system are some technology in increasingly autonomous and self-driving vehicles. Different levels of automation have been suggested as per their technological capabilities and human engagement.
SAE International (2016) is the most known provider where six categories for AV’s have been classified. They are ranging from level 0 to level 5. The level 0 is defined where all the driving tasks are done by the human driver without any involved automation and level 5 is where all driving tasks are performed with autonomous driving technology systems under all circumstances with human occupants who can be passengers and not involved in driving.
As per Piao et al., 2016, the above conclusion helped the impact of Autonomous Vehicle to be considered enormous as the expectation is to reduce road fatalities by 90% of road accidents due to human errors such as distraction because of driving, speeding, fatigue, alcohol or drug involvement.
New transport services are moreover could be developed when provided vehicles are in connection with automation, e.g. traffic safety-related warnings, traffic management, elderly or impaired people with new possibilities. As per Sparrow and Howard, 2017; Meyer et al., 2017, drivers are with more individual comfort and convenience where new business models result in car-sharing services, shared mobility with a strong decrease of road vehicles. (Litman,2018; Fagnant and Kockelman, 2015; Krueger et al., 2016).