What is Industry 4.0?

The economic development of countries, the industrial sector plays an important key factor. “Since the end of the 18th century, industries have gone through massive changes that revolutionized a way how products are manufactured and brought various benefits, mainly related to productivity increase. Nowadays, after three industrial revolutions, the combination of advanced technologies and the internet is again transforming the industrial landscape and is being called the 4th Industrial Revolution or Industry 4.0”. (H.Lasi, Fettke, Kemper, Feld and Hoffmann (2014)).

As per Kagermann, Wahlster and Helbig (2013), “Industry 4.0 topic emerges as a long-term strategy of the German government, which was adopted as part of the High-Tech Strategy 2020 Action Plan in 2011, to ensure the competitiveness of its industry.” Bahrin, Othman, Azli and Talib (2016) “Since then, the German government has institutionalized its commitment to the industry in creating a platform led by Ministries of Economies and business, science and trade representatives.”

This leads to an argument that the Industrial Revolution became a set of macro inventions which led to an acceleration of micro inventions. The events created an irreversible society facing a global sense with no scientific support for knowledge those are pragmatic and about how things get worked. (Mokyr, 1985).

As per Schmidt, Möhring, Härting, Reichstein, Neumaier and Jozinović (2015), “the industry 4.0 topic emerges from the overlapping of several technological developments involving products and processes.” “Since the German government presented the Industry 4.0 as one of its main initiatives to take a lead in technological innovation, several academic publications, articles, and conferences have been discussing this topic.” (15).

As per Acatech (2013), “the fourth industrial revolution will represent the challenge through the technological integration of Cyber-Physical Systems using the Technologies of Information and Communication in industrial processes of manufacturing and logistics. This integration will allow increasing the business value-added chain. Also, it will represent a change in the classical organization of industrial work methodologies and the development of new business models.”

As per Bmwi (2012), “the word Industrie 4.0 represents the description of the Fundamental paradigm of transition from a control applied in industry in a centralized manner for decentralized production. This allows being extremely flexible and individualized, where classic productive barriers disappear creating new technologies areas and forms of cooperation that lead to a change of value-added processes and require a reorganization of the division of labor.”

As per Beatrice. (2018), “Industry 4.0, CPS consists of “smart” objects e.g., (machines, products, or devices) that exchange information autonomously, working in collaboration with the physical world around them. “Smart products”, identified through Radio- Frequency Identification (RIFD) tags, provide information about their location, history, status, and routes. This information allows workstations to “know” which manufacturing steps are being performed for each product and the adaptation needed to perform a specific task.

“IoT makes all this process easier. IoT connects all these devices to an internet network, allowing the collection of a complex and large set of data and the exchange of information in real-time. For example, through IoT it is possible to perform the monitoring of the industrial equipment’s performance. From information generated by the equipment, invisible problems such as machine degradation or wear of components can be detected. The Internet of Services (IoS) presents a similar approach, but uses services rather than physical entities.”

“With the help of technologies such as Big Data and Cloud Computing, it is possible to provide scalable computing power to store and analyze data from multiple sources and customers to support decision-making, optimize operations, save energy, and improve system performance, from design to distribution. Moreover, to allow employees to access them from anywhere, through a tablet or smartphone” (Hermann, Pentek and Otto (2016)).

According to Vermesan et al. (2012), “Internet of things can be defined as a concept network of dynamic information of global reach. Its structure presents autonomous capabilities configurations that are based on standardized communication protocols, where the virtual and physical entities use of intelligent interfaces and are perfectly integrated. Also, its contribution lies in the increase of the value of the information generated by affiliated entities as well as the transformation of information processed as knowledge for the benefit of society.”

The internet of things and Services has been promoted and accompanied by a lot of technology programs which led to a positive result. (Acatech,2013). “This potential developed by this type of strategy will allow the national industry to be able to develop procedures at the level of competitive differentiation. Introducing the ability to satisfaction of specific requirements of customers in design, configuration, planning, manufacture, and changes needed in productive systems all at the same time, makes possible the production in micro-scale be profitable. This flexibility allows a dynamic configuration of different aspects of the value chain at the same time that combines an optimization of the decision model to cope with the real needs of the market.”

As per Moors, J., & Rogiest, S. (2019), Industry 4.0 and 4th industrial evolution are some of the most agenda at every CEO’s table in the manufacturing industry. As per the Federal big Data Commission (2012, p.10), “big data is a term that describes the large volume of high velocity, complex and variable data that require advanced techniques and technologies to enable the capture, storage, distribution, management and analysis of the information.”

According to Ransbotham et al. (2016), “competitive advantage can only be achieved by a sustained commitment to the role of data in decision-making, having a strategic plan for analytics in alignment with the overall corporate strategy, expanding the skill set of management who use data and finally placing a high value on data.”

As per Davenport (2014), “a successful implementation when multiple data sources and knowledge is used for analysis and optimization, when the quality of the data is good and reliable when one conducts data-driven experiments when data is continuously used for decision-making when one develops analytical skills and finally one acts upon the findings.”

As per Atzori et al. 2010, Miorandi et al. (2012), “There is no doubt that the existence of the internet in today, has a direct influence on the economy of a country, in the evolutionary impact of society and how this prosperous through the acceleration of the transmission of knowledge. In the near future, these characteristics will have a greater impact like the integration of technological systems. This will depend on the connection in all levels of human society to have an accelerated development. Today still it continues to be accepted that this type of technology and its applications are still in an embryonic state.”

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