Electric Vehicles are the vehicles that use only electric supply to drive on the road. They are based on the electric propulsion system, an electric motor along with a lithium-ion battery to run. The battery gets charged at power stations and are also interchangeable.
Zero emissions are produced by this type of vehicle.
Due to the lack of an IC engine, the running noise is less.
High acceleration and regenerative braking technology are used.
Long-range is not possible.
There is a possibility of catching fire due to Lithium-ion batteries.
Charging requires a long time.
Time curtails down the storing capacity of charge.
Hybrid Vehicles are the vehicles run on a combination of two or more propulsion systems. It functions with a Diesel IC engine and also a battery that can store charge to run an electric motor. So, in such vehicles, the battery is used at first and when the car run down out of low battery, diesel engine starts the system along with recharging the battery system. Once the battery system is charged it will again cut off the diesel engine and the car will run on the battery again.
A better economy is provided.
The range is longer than the electric vehicles.
More usage of Diesel while charging the battery as well as driving the car.
Some amount of Co2 emission is expected.
Electric Charging takes time.
Due to more than 1 propulsion system, the cost involved in no. of components are more.
Plug-in Hybrid Vehicles
Like Hybrid Vehicles, they also run on more than 1 propulsion system but the vehicles can be charged through external sources. A lot of sensors are used in such vehicles and a program decides the propulsion system which can be used for maximum efficiency. The principle of running the vehicle and charging the battery simultaneously is similar to hybrid vehicles. The vehicle also uses regenerative braking technology in order to save energy and increases efficiency by charging the battery.
The range is longer than the normal hybrid card and it is more efficient.
The external power source can be used in order to charge the battery and can also be replaced.
They are very sophisticated and complex in use.
Software integration is required with hardware and thereby increases the cost.
Electric propulsion is defined as a class of space propulsion that uses electric power to accelerate a propellant by electric or magnetic means.
Regenerative Braking System is defined as a process wherein a short term storage system, a portion of the kinetic energy system of the vehicle is stored. The dissipated energy in the brakes is normally directed to the energy store by a power transmission during deceleration. The energy is controlled until it is required back again by vehicle where it gets converted into kinetic energy and used as an accelerator in the vehicle. The amount of the portion available for the energy storage varies as per the type of storage, drives, train efficiency, drive cycle, and inertia weight.
The following properties are important for a regenerative braking system:-
Conversion of efficient energy.
A high capacity per unit weight and volume for an energy store.
In a short space of time, a high power-rating for a large amount of energy can flow.
Not require over a complicated control system to link it with vehicle transmission.
Smooth delivery of power from the regenerative power system.
Breaking energy is absorbed and stored in direct proportion to braking.
Need for Regenerative braking system:-
The increase in petroleum fuel prices in the past few years led to the various rise in research and development efforts for energy conservation. Nonetheless, consumption of reduced fuel and therefore operating cost leading to reduced gaseous emission including primarily carbon dioxide causing global warming which are the major driving forces behind commercial considerations of such a system.
Improved fuel economy.
Reduction in emission.
Performance is improved.
Engine wear is reduced.
Brake wear is reduced.
The operating range is comparable with conventional brakes.
Mass production would bring down the cost to a reasonable level.
Noise is dependent on the system.
Safety is a primary concern. There must be very little chance of dangerous failure during normal vehicle operation. Passengers must be protected from the risk that may be caused by the failure of the hybrid system.
Size and packaging are constraints for most cars.
Added maintenance requirement.
1.Karan C. Prajapati, Ravi Patel and Rachit Sagar; Hybrid Vehicle: A Study on Technology (IJERT) 2014.
2. Dr. K.V. Vidyanandan, Overview of Electric and Hybrid Vehicles.
3. James R. Bumby; THE HYBRID ELECTRIC VEHICLE Development and future prospects.
4. Singh, A. R., & Kulkarn, A. V. (2019). Hybrid Vehicle: A New era of Transportation. MAT journals, 4(1), 26-30.
6. http://eprints.whiterose.ac.uk/2118/1/ITS105 WP 471 uploadable.pdf.